Glossary

% Articles in Citable Items

The % of Articles in Citable Items emphasizes a journal's original research by calculating the percentage of articles that count toward the total Citable Items. For example, in 2013, Nature has 829 articles and 28 reviews for a total Citable Items of 857. 

96% of the Citable Items are original research.

% Documents cited

Number of cited documents divided by the total number of documents (P1/P2) x 100.

In a Global Comparisons report, % documents cited limited to international collaboration counts is the number of cited documents with international collaboration divided by the total number of documents with international collaboration (P1_Intl/P2_Intl) multiplied by 100.

% Documents cited relative to country/territory

Percentage of cited papers for a country/territory in a subject area divided by percentage of cited papers for a country/territory as a whole. A value greater than 1 indicates that the impact of the country/territory in the selected subject area is stronger than the impact of the country/territory across all subject areas.

% Documents cited relative to institution

Percentage of cited documents for an institution in a subject area divided by percentage of cited documents for an institution as a whole. A value greater than 1 indicates that the impact of the institution in the selected subject area is stronger than the impact of the institution across all subject areas.

In a Global Comparisons report, % documents cited relative to institution limited to international collaboration counts is the percentage of cited documents with international collaboration for an institution in a subject area divided by percentage of cited documents for an institution as a whole.

% Documents cited relative to subject area

Percentage of cited documents for a country, territory or institution in one subject area divided by percentage of cited papers for the world in the same subject area. A value greater than 1 indicates a better-than-average impact relative to subject area.

In a Global Comparisons report, % documents cited relative to subject area limited to international collaboration counts is the percentage of cited documents with international collaboration for an institution in one subject area divided by percentage of cited papers for the world in the same subject area.

% Documents cited relative to world

Percentage of cited documents for a country, territory or institution divided by percentage of cited papers for the world in all subject areas. A value greater than 1 indicates a better-than-average impact in all subject areas.

In a Global Comparisons report, % documents cited relative to world limited to international collaboration counts is the percentage of cited documents for the institution divided by the percentage of all cited documents.

% Documents in country/territory

Number of articles produced by a country/territory in one subject area divided by the total number of documents produced by that country/territory in all subject areas (P1/P2) x 100.

% Documents in institution

Number of articles produced by an institution in one subject area divided by the total number of documents produced by that institution in all subject areas (P1/P2) x 100.

In a Global Comparisons report, % documents in institution limited to international collaboration counts is the number of documents with international collaboration produced by an institution in one subject area divided by the total number of documents produced by that institution in all subject areas (P1_Intl/P2) x 100.

% Documents in subject area

Number of articles in a subject area produced by a country, territory, or institution divided by the total number of documents in the subject area (P1/P2) x 100.

In a Global Comparisons report, % documents in subject area limited to international collaboration is the number of documents in a subject area with international collaboration produced by an institution divided by the total number of documents in the subject area (P1_Intl/P2) x 100.

% Documents in world

1) Number of documents produced by a country/territory in one subject area divided by the total number of documents in all subject areas (P1/P2) x 100.

2) Number of documents in a subject area divided by the total number of documents produced in all subject areas (P1/P2) x 100.

In a Global Comparisons report, % documents in world limited to international collaboration counts is the number of documents with international collaboration in a subject area divided by the total number of documents produced in all subject areas (P1_Intl/P2) x 100.

% Self citations

Number of self citations divided by the total number of citing articles (P1/P2) x 100.

+ (plus sign)

The plus sign indicates that the citation counts for translated and original language versions of the same journal have been combined. 

2nd generation citations

Total number of citations received by the citing papers of a source article.

2nd generation citations per citing article

Total number of citations received by all citing papers divided by the number of citing papers.

5-Year Journal Impact Factor

The 5-year journal Impact Factor, available from 2007 onward, is the average number of times articles from the journal published in the past five years have been cited in the JCR year. It is caclulated by dividing the number of citations in the JCR year by the total number of articles published in the five previous years.

Academic and research staff

The sum total of academic and research staff.

Source: Institutional Data Collection

Value: Sum of the number of academic staff and the number of research staff.

Score: Cumulative probability score of the value. Scores can range from 1-100.

Academic staff

The number of FTE employees who hold an academic position. This count excludes clinicians, researchers and staff who are no longer active or who hold honorary posts.

Source: Institutional Data Collection

Value: Raw number

Score: Cumulative probability score of the value. Scores can range from 1-100.

Academic staff / Academic and research staff

The proportion of all staff who are predominantly academic. Its value is the quotient obtained by dividing the number of academic staff by the total number of academic and research staff.

Academic staff / Students – total

This is sometimes referred to as a “staff student ratio” and is an indication of the student environment. Its value is a quotient obtained by dividing the number of academic staff by the total number of students.

Academic staff / Undergraduate degrees awarded

This is sometimes referred to as a "staff student ratio" and is an indication of the student environment. Its value is the quotient obtained by dividing the number of academic staff by the number of undergraduate degrees awarded.

Academic staff - international / Academic staff

The proportion of the academic faculty that are of international origin. This is an indicator of the institution’s ability to attract staff from a global environment. 

Access date

This field stores the date of access to an electronic source.

Address search dataset

A dataset generated from address information in Web of Science.

Affiliate institution

An institution other than your institution where an author has a current position or title.

Aggregate Cited Category Graph

Shows the distribution by cited year of citations to articles published in journals in the category in the JCR year.

Aggregate Cited Half-Life

Aggregate Cited half-life is the median age, in years, of items in any journal in the category that were cited during the JCR year. 

Aggregate Citing Category Graph

Shows the distribution by cited year of citations from journals in the category made in the JCR year.

Aggregate Citing Half-Life

The median age of articles cited by journals in the category in the JCR Year based on aggregated journal data. 

Aggregate Immediacy Index

The aggregate Immediacy Index indicates how quickly articles in a subject category are cited.

Aggregate Impact Factor

The aggregate Impact Factor for a subject category is calculated the same way as the Impact Factor for a journal, but it takes into account the number of citations to all journals in the category and the number of articles from all journals in the category. An aggregate Impact Factor of 1.0 means that that, on average, the articles in the subject category published one or two years ago have been cited one time. 

Aggregate performance indicator

The aggregate performance indicator (API) measures the impact of an institution or country relative to an expected citation rate for the institution or country. The indicator is normalized for field differences in citation rates as well as size differences among entities and time periods.

According to the current definition of API: in a given time period the total citations accrued for all papers, in all fields, is divided by the sum of the average citation rates for each paper, respective to their fields and time periods.

The aggregate performance indicator can be expressed as an equation:

Where ni is the total number of publications for institution i in field f year t, cift is the number of citations for institution i in field f and year t, and is the average citation rate of papers in field f and year t (baseline). This metrics also can be regarded as first calculating the actual-expected cites ratio for each papers then computing the average ratio for all the involved papers.

Article

An article is a significant item published in a journal covered by Journal Citation Reports®. Editorials, letters, news items, and meeting abstracts are usually not counted as articles because they are not generally cited. The Articles column in the table you see on the Journal Summary page or Journal page counts research articles, review articles, notes, and corrections/retractions. Articles and Reviews are counted separately in the Journal Source Data section of the Journal page. 

Article Influence Score

The Article Influence Score determines the average influence of a journal's articles over the first five years after publication.  It is calculated  by multiplying the Eigenfactor Score by 0.01 and dividing by the number of articles in the journal, normalized as a fraction of all articles in all publications.  This measure is roughly analogous to the 5-Year Journal Impact Factor in that it is a ratio of a journal’s citation influence to the size of the journal’s article contribution over a period of five years. 

The equation is as follows:  where X = 5-year Journal Article Count divided by the 5-year Article Count from All Journals.

The mean Article Influence Score for each article is 1.00. A score greater than 1.00 indicates that each article in the journal has above-average influence. A score less than 1.00 indicates that each article in the journal has below-average influence.

Author profile dataset

A file of author and publication data supplied by an institution.

Average

Mean value, or the quotient obtained by dividing the sum total of values by the number of values.

Average citations

Mean value, or the quotient obtained by dividing the sum total of citations in the dataset by the number of citing articles.

Average citations without self citations

Mean value, or the quotient obtained by 1) subtracting the number of self citations from the total number of citations and then 2) dividing the result by the number of citing articles.

Average document age

Average age of a document given in years.

Average Journal Impact Factor Percentile

The Average Journal Impact Factor Percentile takes the sum of the JIF Percentile for each category under consideration, and then calculates the average from those values. 

Where N = number of categories

Average percentile

The mean of the percentiles in subject area for articles in the set.

Category

See subject area.

Category Box Plot

The Category box plot depicts the distribution of Impact Factors for all journals in the category. The horizontal line that forms the top of the box is the 75th percentile (Q1). The horizontal line that forms the bottom is the 25th percentile (Q3). The horizontal line that intersects the box is the median Impact Factor for the category. 

Category expected citations

Average number of citations received by articles of the same document type from journals in the same database year and same category (subject area). If a journal is assigned to more than one category, the category expected cites is the average for the categories.

You can compare an article’s citation count to this norm by forming a ratio of actual citations to expected citations--the Category Actual/Expected Citations. A ratio greater than 1 indicates that the article's citation count is better than average.

For example, the average number of citations received by a review article published in 1994 in a journal assigned to the category of Applied Physics is 36.52. This number is the Category Expected Citations. If a review article in an Applied Physics journal has received 43 citations since it was published in 1994, then the ratio of actual citations to Category Expected Citations is 1.18, indicating a better-than-average citation count.

On many reports, the Category Actual/Expected Citations ratio is an aggregate ratio: the denominator (expected citations) is the sum of the expected citations of all categories of journals that the documents were published in. The numerator (actual citations) is the sum of the citation counts of the documents. Division of these sums yields the number shown.

Citation

A citation is the formal acknowledgment of intellectual debt to previously published research. It generally contains sufficient bibliographic information to uniquely identify the cited document.

Citation frequency distribution

The citation frequency distribution shows the number of papers cited different numbers of times on a scatter plot connected by lines. The horizontal axis shows the number of citations on a linear scale. The vertical axis shows the number of articles on a log scale.

Citations – total

Total citations from Web of Science.

Source: Bibliometric Analysis

Value: Raw number

Score: Cumulative probability score of the value. Scores can range from 1-100.

Citations – total / Academic and research staff

Citations scaled by the number of the academic and research staff. Its value is the quotient obtained by dividing the number of citations by the number of academic and research staff.

Citations – total / Academic staff

Citations scaled by the number of the academic staff. Its value is the quotient obtained by dividing the number of citations by the number of academic staff.

Citations – total / Million research income

Cost effectiveness of the research activity as a measure of output (citations) divided by input (funding). Its value is the product of the following formula: (number of citations/research income) * 1,000,000.

Citation threshold

A fraction or percentage of papers selected after ranking papers in a research field in descending order by citation count.

Citation Trend Graphs Viewed

Users can click to view Citation Trend data as a graph in the Papers by Research Field screen.

Cite

See Citation 

Cited from year

The earliest database year from which cited articles are taken. The cited from year and cited to years mark the beginning and end of a period. In the time series analyses, this denotes the database years of the source papers being cited.

Cited Half-life

Median age of the articles that were cited in the JCR year. Half of a journal's cited articles were published more recently than the cited half-life.

Cited Journal Data

Cited Journal data show how many citations a journal received in the JCR year. 

Cited Journal Graph

The Cited Journal Graph shows the distribution by cited year of citations to articles published in a journal. 

Cited-Only Journals (Journals with only Cited Journal information)

Some of the journals listed in JCR are not citing journals, but are cited-only journals. This means that the references in these journals are not included in the database. This is significant when comparing journals because self-citations from cited-only journals are not included in JCR data. Self-citations often represent a significant percentage of the citations that a journal receives. Cited-only journals may be ceased journals, suspended journals, or superseded titles. Any journal that appears elsewhere in JCR, but not in the Citing Journal Listing, is a cited-only journal. 

Cited to year

The latest database year from which cited articles are taken. The cited from year and cited to years mark the beginning and end of a period. In the time series analyses, this denotes the database years of the source papers being cited.

Cites per document (impact)

Average number of citations received per paper or the total number of citations (Times Cited) divided by the total number of Web of Science

In a Global Comparisons report, cites per document limited to international collaboration counts is the number of citations received by papers with international collaboration divided by the total number of papers with international collaboration.

Citing Half-Life

Median age of articles cited by the journal in the JCR year.

Citing Journal Data

Citing journal data show how many citations a journal made to other journals (including itself) in the JCR year.

Cumulative probability

Cumulative probability is a statistical method of representing a single value within a normally distributed set of data.

For example, if the value of research income for a given institution is $443,500,650 and its cumulative probability score is 90, then there is a 90% chance that the research income of a randomly selected institution will be less than $443,500,650.

Database year

The year in which records were added to the Thomson Reuters database (e.g., Web of Science). The database year may include some documents published in years prior to the database year.

Dataset

A set of bibliographic records compiled according to custom criteria such as subject category, journal title, keyword, and publication year. Each record in a dataset includes bibliographic information (author, title, source publication).

Disciplinarity index

A measure of the concentration of a set of papers over a set of categories. The index ranges from 0 to 1, where the higher the number, the more concentrated the set. For example, an index of .9 indicates a high level of concentration. This index is based on the Herfindahl index, which is commonly used in economics to assess market share.

Doctoral degrees awarded

The number of advanced research degrees awarded (PhD and equivalent). Includes advanced degrees that include a significant taught component such as a Medical Doctorate, Doctor of Law or Doctor of Engineering and equivalents.

Source: Institutional Data Collection

Value: Raw number

Score: Cumulative probability score of the value. Scores can range from 1-100.

Doctoral degrees awarded / Academic staff

An indication of how successful the institution is at producing doctorates scaled against the number of academic staff. Its value is the quotient obtained by dividing the number of doctoral degrees awarded by the number of academic staff.

Doctoral degrees awarded / Doctoral - new student intake

The graduation rate is an indicator of the probability that an incoming doctoral student will graduate. Care should be taken to recognise that regional and subject specific trends may influence this indicator.

Doctoral degrees awarded / Research staff

The research staff are used as a scaling measure to show the contrast between doctoral based research and general research. Its value is the quotient obtained by dividing the number of doctoral degrees awarded by the number of research staff

Doctoral degrees awarded / Undergraduate degrees awarded

An indication of which end of the education spectrum upon which the institution is focused. Its value is the quotient obtained by dividing the number of doctoral degrees awarded by the number of undergraduate degrees awarded.

Doctoral - new student intake

The FTE number of Doctoral (PhD and equivalent) students admitted in this year. These programmes are devoted to advanced study and original research and will lead to an advanced research qualification. This will include advanced degrees that include a significant taught component such as a Medical Doctorate , Doctor of Law or Doctor of Engineering and equivalents.

Document number

The document number is a unique identifier assigned to records in Web of Science. This number is found in the UT field in records exported from Web of Science.

Documents from other sources

In an author profile dataset, documents from other sources are documents that are not found in Web of Science and therefore are not used to calculate citation metrics. Compare Web of Science document.

Document type

In addition to research articles, many journals publish review articles and short items such as letters and editorials. To see the complete list of article types in your subscription dataset, select the Document Type report.

Ego Network

The Journal Ego Network is an graph that depicts the relationship of citation data between the profile journal and the top 20 journals in the JCR dataset for a selected metric.

Eigenfactor® Metrics

Like the Impact Factor, the Eigenfactor Score and Article Influence® Score use citation data to assess and track the influence of a journal in relation to other journals. Eigenfactor Metrics are available only for JCR years 2007 and later.

You can learn more about Eigenfactor Score and Article Influence Score at www.eigenfactor.org.

Eigenfactor Metrics, Eigenfactor Score, Article Influence® Score are Licensed Marks used with permission from the University of Washington

The Eigenfactor® Algorithm-2008, was developed by the Metrics Eigenfactor Project: a bibliometric research project conducted by Professor Carl Bergstrom and his laboratory at University of Washington.

Eigenfactor® Score

The Eigenfactor Score calculation is based on the number of times articles from the journal published in the past five years have been cited in the JCR year, but it also considers which journals have contributed these citations so that highly cited journals will influence the network more than lesser cited journals.  References from one article in a journal to another article from the same journal are removed, so that Eigenfactor Scores are not influenced by journal self-citation. 

Field

See subject area.

Finances

A set of indicators reflecting the financial performance of the institution.

  • Institutional income
  • Research income
  • Institutional income / students - total
  • Institutional income / academic staff
  • Research income / academic staff
  • Papers / research income
  • Research income / papers

Full-Time Equivalent (FTE)

A measure of the number of hours worked by an employee considered full-time by an institution. If an institution defines full-time as 40-hours a week, then an employee who works 40 hours/week is 1 FTE. An employee who works 20 hours a week is 0.5 FTE. 

Grant numbers count

The number of total grant numbers for the documents attributed to the funding agency in the dataset.

Highly Cited Paper

A paper that belongs to the top 1% of papers in a research field published in a specified year. The 1% is determined by the highly cited threshold calculated for the research field in the specified year.

Highly cited threshold

The minimum number of citations received by the top 1% of papers in the research field published in the specified year.

h-index

The h-index is based on a list of publications ranked in descending order by the times cited. The value of h is equal to the number of papers (N) in the list that have N or more citations.

For example, an h-index of 12 indicates that in the dataset, 12 papers were cited at least 12 times each.

h-index without self-citations

An h-index based on times cited values calculated by subtracting the number of self citations from the times cited number.

Hot Paper

A paper published in the past two years that received a number of citations in the most recent two-month period that places it in the top 0.1% of papers in the same field.

Hot Papers Graphs Viewed

When a user clicks on the ESi Hot icon and the Hot Papers Graph displays

Immediacy Index

The Immediacy Index is the average number of times an article is cited in the year it is published.

  • The journal Immediacy Index indicates how quickly articles in a journal are cited.
  • The aggregate Immediacy Index indicates how quickly articles in a subject category are cited.

The Immediacy Index is calculated by dividing the number of citations to articles published in a given year by the number of articles published in that year.

Because it is a per-article average, the Immediacy Index tends to discount the advantage of large journals over small ones. However, frequently issued journals may have an advantage because an article published early in the year has a better chance of being cited than one published later in the year. Many publications that publish infrequently or late in the year have low Immediacy Indexes.

For comparing journals specializing in cutting-edge research, the immediacy index can provide a useful perspective.

Impact

In a global comparisons report, impact is cites per document. More broadly, impact is the degree to which a collection of papers influences research as measured by citation activity.

Impact Factor

See Journal Impact Factor.

Impact Factor Box Plot

See Category Box Plot.

Impact relative to country/territory

Impact in a particular subject area relative to the impact for the entire country/territory in all subject areas. jA value greater than 1 indicates that the impact of the Country/Territory in the selected subject area is better than the average impact of the Country/Territory across all subject areas.

Impact relative to institution

Impact of an institution in a particular subject area relative to the impact of the institution in all subject areas. A value greater than 1 indicates that the impact of the institution in the selected subject area is greater than the impact of the institution across all subject areas.

In a Global Comparisons report, impact relative to institution limited to international collaboration counts is the impact with international collaboration in a subject area relative to the total impact in all subject areas. It is the quotient obtained by dividing the value of Cites per Document (Intl) by the value of Cites per Document (Total) in all subject areas.

Impact relative to subject area

Impact (cites per document) of a country or institution in a subject area relative to the impact all countries or all institutions in the subject area overall. A value greater than 1 indicates that the impact in the subject area is greater than the impact in all subject areas.

In a Global Comparisons report, impact relative to subject area limited to international collaboration counts is the impact with international collaboration in a subject area relative to total impact in all subject areas. It is the quotient obtained by dividing the value of Cites per Document (Intl) in a subject area by the value of Cites per Document (Total) for all institutions in all subject areas.

Impact relative to world

The quotient obtained by dividing the citations per document for a selected institution or country by the citations per document for all documents in the selected time period.

In a Global Comparisons report, impact relative to world limited to international collaboration is the quotient obtained by dividing the Cites per Document (Intl) for a selected institution by the Cites per Document (Total) for all documents in the selected time period.

Institutional income

The total income of the institution, modified by purchasing power parity (PPP). This will include all forms of income such as general university funds, grant income, contract income, teaching income, donations, investments and commercialization.

Source: Institutional Data Collection

Value: Institutional income as reported by the institution, modified by purchasing power parity.

Score: Cumulative probability score of the value. Scores can range from 1-100.

Institutional income / Academic staff

Institutional income scaled against the numbers of academic staff, to give an indication of how well resourced an institution is regardless of its size. It value is the quotient obtained by dividing the institutional income by the number of academic staff.

Institutional income / Students – total

The resources available scaled against the number of students. Its value is the quotient obtained by dividing the institutional income by the total number of students.

Institutional income / Undergraduate degrees awarded

The resources available scaled against the number of students. It value is the quotient obtained by dividing the institutional income by the number of undergraduate degrees awarded.

Institutional performance

A set of indicators reflecting the performance of various non-research characteristics of the institution.

  • Teaching reputation - global
  • Undergraduate degrees awarded
  • Doctoral degrees awarded
  • Academic staff / Students - total 
  • Institutional income / Students - total
  • Doctoral degrees awarded / academic staff
  • Research staff / academic staff
  • Institutional income / academic staff

Interdisciplinarity index

An entropy measure of the dispersion of papers over the categories. There is an upper limit of 1 so that a value of 1 indicates an equal dispersion of papers over all categories. The closer the value to 1, the more multidisciplinary the set of papers. A value of 0 indicates that only one category is represented in the dataset. The interdisciplinarity index is based on entropy in information theory and can be expressed as:

where p is the share of papers in category i and n is the number of categories.

International collaboration

A paper is written with international collaboration if it has at least two different countries/territories in its address field. The rate of international collaboration is   where N is the total number of papers and n is the number of papers with at least two different countries/institutions in address field.

For single institutions, N papers have the country of the institution in the address field, and n papers have at least one address with a different country in the address field.

If the institution is a country total (e.g., Brazil Totals), N papers have the country in the address field, and n papers have at least one address with a different country in the address field.

A paper from a UK  institution is written with international collaboration if it has at least two different countries/territories in its address field, excluding England, Scotland, North Ireland or Wales.  For instance, if a paper contains two addresses, one from Wales and the other from England, the publication is not considered to be international. 

A paper from a corporate entity is written with international collaboration if it has at least two different countries/territories in its address field. For a paper i from a corporate entity to be regarded as internationally collaborated it has to contain at least two different countries/territories in the address field. The rate of international collaboration is   where N is the total number of papers for the corporate entity and is the total number of its papers with at least two different countries/institutions in address field.

International diversity

A set of indicators reflecting the international diversity of an institution.

  • Academic staff - international / Academic Staff
  • Papers with international co-author / Papers - total
  • Students - international / Students - total
  • Undergraduate - new student intake - international / Undergraduate - new student intake
  • Research reputation - international
  • Teaching reputation – international

ISSN

International Standard Serial Number, a unique number that identifies a journal. The format is four numbers, a hyphen (-), three numbers, and then a check character that may be a number or X. For example, 0010-4620

JCR Box Plot

The Impact Factor box plot depicts the distribution of Impact Factors for all journals in the category. 

JCR Year

The year of the JCR edition displayed in the top right-hand corner of the page. Each JCR year contains one year of citation data. You select the JCR year on the Welcome page.

Journal Box Plot

Depicts the journal's Impact Factor against the distribution of Impact Factors for all journals in the category with box plots provided for each category in which the journal is indexed. 

Journal expected citations

Average number of citations to articles of the same document type from the same journal in the same database year.

You can compare an article’s citation count to this norm by forming a ratio of actual citations to expected citations--the Journal Actual/Expected Citations ratio. A ratio greater than 1 indicates that the article's citation count is better than average.

For example, the average number of citations received by an article published in 2004 in the journal Circulation is 55.34. This number is the journal expected citations. If an article published in Circulation in 2004 has received 30 citations, the ratio of actual citations to expected citations is .54, indicating a below-average citation count.

On many reports, the Journal Actual/Expected Citations ratio is an aggregate ratio: the denominator (expected citations) is the sum of the expected citations of all journals that the documents were published in. The numerator (actual citations) is the sum of the citation counts of the documents themselves. Division of the sums yields the number shown.

Journal Impact Factor

The Journal Impact Factor is defined as all citations to the journal in the current JCR year to items published in the previous two years, divided by the total number of scholarly items (these comprise articles, reviews, and proceedings papers) published in the journal in the previous two years.

Though not a strict mathematical average, the Journal Impact Factor provides a functional approximation of the mean citation rate per citable item.  A Journal Impact Factor of 1.0 means that, on average, the articles published one or two years ago have been cited one time.  A Journal Impact Factor of 2.5 means that, on average, the articles published one or two years ago have been cited two and a half times.  The citing works may be articles published in the same journal.  However, most citing works are from different journals, proceedings, or books indexed in Web of Science Core Collection.

Journal Impact Factor Percentile

The Journal Impact Factor Percentile transforms the rank in category by Journal Impact Factor into a percentile value, allowing more meaningful cross-category comparison It is calculated by using the following formula:

Where:

  • N is the number of journals in the category
  • R is the Descending Rank

Journal Impact Factor - Subject Category

The JIF - Subject Category is a quartile comparison metric that takes the Journal Impact Factor without Self Cites and applies a journal to a quartile based on that value. 

Journal Title Change

The Journal Title Changes page lists title changes occurring in the past two years (that is, the JCR year and the preceding year). The listing is in alphabetical order by journal title. To view this list, click the Journal Title Changes link on the Journal page or the Journal Summary List page.

Mean

Same as average.

Median

Middle value in a range of values. If there is no middle value, then the median is the average of the two middle values.

Median cites

The number of citations to an article at the midpoint of a ranking. For example, in a ranking of 20 authors, the median cites would be the number of citations received by the 10th author on the list.

Non-Traditional

References types that are deemed to be non-traditional are non-research materials that include the following:
Acts

Act Releases

Annals of Congress

Archaeological Digs & Sites

Bills & Resolutions

Briefs & Litigations

Codes            

Congressional Globe

Congressional Record

Court Cases

Court Decisions

Court Reports

Debates

Depositions

Docket Nos.

Hansard

Hearings

Laws

Legislative Documents & Reports

Maps

National & State Constitutions

Press Releases

Register of Debates

Regulations

Rules

Statutes

Testimonies

UK Parliament

U.N. Docs. & Treaties

URL

DOI

Databases

Normalized citation impact

The Normalized Citation Impact measures the quotient of an observed citation rate or impact of an institution and an expected citation rate for the institution or country. i.e. it compares the performance of an institution to the average performance of the world .

Source: Bibliometric Analysis

Value: Normalized citation impact

Score: Cumulative probability score of the value. Scores can range from 1-100.

Normalized citation impact - country adjusted

This is a modification of the normalized citation impact to take into account the country/region where the institution is based. This reflects the fact that in some regions will have different publication and citation behaviour because of factors such as policy, language and size of the research network. The indicator is calculated as the normalized citation impact of the institution divided by the square root of the normalized citation impact of the country in which it is based.  

Normalized Eigenfactor® Score

The Normalized Eigenfactor Score is the Eigenfactor score normalized, by rescaling the total number of journals in the JCR each year, so that the average journal has a score of 1. Journals can then be compared and influence measured by their score relative to 1. For example, if a journal has a Normalized Eigenfactor Score of 5, that journal is considered to be 5 times as influential as the average journal in the JCR. 

Normalized indicators

Some indicators include the suffix “normalized." This indicates that the indicator has been modified to overcome differences in subjects. The normalized indicator is calculated as the weighted average of the relative performance in each subject area. This is a three step process:

  1. The inter-quartile mean of the performance of all institutions is calculated for each subject.
  2. The performance of the institution in each subject is divided by the inter-quartile mean of the subject. This results in a relative indicator for that subject.
  3. The weighted average of the institution’s performance across subjects (Overall) is calculated using the value of the denominator as the weighting factor.
    For example for the indicator “papers / academic staff” the number of academic staff in each subject is used as the weighting factor to calculate the average of the relative indicators. 

The normalized indicator for a single subject is the relative indicator as described in step 2. 

Papers / Million research income

Cost effectiveness of the research activity as a measure of output (papers) divided by input (funding). Its value is the product of the following formula: (number of papers/research income) * 1,000,000.

Papers – total

Total papers from Web of Science, limited to articles and reviews.

Source: Bibliometric Analysis

Value: Raw number

Score: Cumulative probability score of the value. Scores can range from 1-100.

Papers – total / Academic and research staff

Papers for the institution scaled by the number of academic and research staff. Its value is the quotient obtained by dividing the number of papers by the number of academic and research staff.

Papers – total / Academic staff

Papers for the institution scaled by the number of academic staff. Its value is the quotient obtained by dividing the number of papers by the number of academic staff.

Papers with international co-author / Papers – total

The proportion of the papers authored by the institution that contain a co-author from a country other than the country in which the institution is based. This is an indicator of the institution’s ability to collaborate in a global environment.

Percentile in subject area

The percentile in which the paper ranks in its category and database year, based on total citations received by the paper. The higher the number citations, the smaller the percentile number. The maximum percentile value is 100, indicating 0 citations received. Only article types article, note, and review are used to determine the percentile distribution, and only those same article types receive a percentile value. If a journal is assigned to more than one subject area, the percentile is based on the subject area in which the paper performs best, i.e. the lowest value.

Publication Frequency

Frequency of publication data categorize the journals in the subject category according to their publication schedule. Subject categories that have a large number of frequently published journals tend to have a high Immediacy Index.

Publication year

The year in which a source item was published. 

Purchasing Power Parity

Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) adjusts the exchange rate between currencies by taking into account the actual cost to purchase the same goods in the home countries of the currencies. Thomson Reuters uses Purchasing Power Parity data from the International Monetary Fund’s World Economic Outlook Database (Surveys 2010) to convert the value of monetary indicators such as research income into U.S. dollars.

Reference

See Citation

References to source articles

Number of references made by a citing article to source articles in a dataset.

Reputational characteristics

A set of indicators reflecting the reputational standing of the institution and performance relating to reputation.

  • Teaching reputation - global
  • Research reputation - global
  • Normalized citation impact
  • Research income / academic staff
  • Research power / research income
  • Citations / academic staff

Reputation – research (group)

The reputational standing, for research, of an institution in various geographical regions.

  • North America
  • Latin America
  • Africa
  • Asia
  • Europe
  • Oceania

Reputation – teaching (group)

The reputational standing, for teaching, of an institution in various geographical regions.

  • North America
  • Latin America
  • Africa
  • Asia
  • Europe
  • Oceania

Research capacity and performance

A set of indicators associated with research performance.

  • Academic and research staff
  • Research income
  • Papers - total / Academic and research staff
  • Papers - total / Million research income
  • Research income / Academic and research staff
  • Research reputation - global

Research front

A group of highly cited papers over a five-year period, referred to as "core papers," in a specialized topic defined by a cluster analysis

Research income

The amount of income that the institution has acquired specifically for research.

Source: Institutional Data Collection

Value: Research income as reported by the institution, modified by purchasing power parity.

Score: Cumulative probability score of the value. Scores can range from 1-100.

Research income / Academic and research staff

Research income scaled against academic staff and research staff. Its value is the quotient obtained by dividing research income by the number of academic and research staff.

Research income / Academic staff

Research income scaled against the academic staff, to give an indication of how well resourced an institution is regardless of its size. It is also an indication of the academic staff’s ability to attract research funding. Its value is the quotient obtained by dividing research income by the number of academic staff.

Research income / Citations – total

The research income scaled by the number of citations. Its value is the quotient obtained by dividing research income by the number of citations.

Research income / Institutional income

How intensively an institution is focused on research. Its value is the quotient obtained by dividing research income by institutional income.

Research income / Papers – total

The research income scaled by the number of papers. Its value is the quotient obtained by dividing research income by the number of papers.

Research income / Research staff

Research income scaled against the number of research staff. Its value is the quotient obtained by dividing research income by the number of research staff.

Research income from industry

This is the amount of research income acquired from industry or other commercial entities.

Research income from industry / Academic and research staff

Research income from industry scaled against the number of academic and research staff. Its value is the quotient obtained by dividing research income from industry by the number of academic and research staff.

Research income from industry / Academic staff

Research income from industry scaled against the number of academic staff to give an indication of how successful an institution is at acquiring income from industry regardless of its size. Its value is the quotient obtained by dividing research income from industry by the number of academic staff. 

Research income from industry / Research income

How intensively research is funded be industry. Its value is the quotient obtained by dividing research income from industry by research income.

Research income from industry / Research staff

Research income from industry scaled against the number of research staff. Its value is the quotient obtained by dividing research income from industry by the number of research staff.

Research output

A set of indicators representing the research output of an institution.

  • Citations - total
  • Papers - total
  • Research income
  • Papers - total / Academic staff
  • Papers - total / Million research income
  • Doctoral degrees awarded / Academic staff
  • Research reputation - global

Research performance

A set of indicators associated with research performance.

  • Normalized citation impact
  • Papers - total / Academic Staff
  • Doctoral degrees awarded / Academic Staff
  • Research income / Academic Staff
  • Research income / Institutional income
  • Research reputation - global

Research power

The research power of the institutions as measured by the normalized citation impact multiplied by the number of academic staff. It is a value equivalent to the total number of citations normalized for the subject and year.

Source: Bibliometric Analysis

Value: Multiple of normalized citation impact and number of academic staff

Score: Cumulative probability score of the value. Scores can range from 1-100.

Research power / Million research income

Indication of the volume and citedness of research scaled by the research income. Its value is the product of the following formula: (research power/research income) * 1,000,000.

Research reputation – global

Results of the Academic reputation survey for research.

Source: Academic Reputation Survey

Value: Average of values weighted according to country of respondent. Values can range from 0-100.

Score: Cumulative probability score of the value. Scores can range from 1-100.

Research reputation – international

Results of the Academic reputation survey for research limited to geographical regions other than the one in which the institution is based.

Source: Academic Reputation Survey

Value: Percentage of the responses that selected this institution

Score: Exponentially scaled Cumulative Probability score of the value. Scores can range from 1-100

Research size

A set of volume related indicators of research performance.

  • Citations - total
  • Papers - total
  • Doctoral degrees awarded
  • Research staff
  • Research income
  • Research power / Million research income

Research staff

The number of FTE employees who perform research, excluding academic staff.

Source: Institutional Data Collection

Value: Raw number

Score: Cumulative probability score of the value. Scores can range from 1-100.

Research staff / Academic and research staff

The proportion of all staff focused on research. Its value is the quotient obtained by dividing the number of research staff by the number of academic and research staff.

Research staff / Academic staff

How intensively an institution is focused on laboratory research. Its value is the quotient obtained by dividing the number of research staff by the number of academic staff.

Review

An item is classified as a review if it meets any of the following criteria:

  • it cites more than 100 references
  • it appears in a review publication or a review section of a journal
  • the word review or overview appears in its title
  • the abstract states that it is a review or survey

Scaled Characteristics

A set of indicators reflecting various size independent characteristics of the institution.

  • Normalized citation impact
  • Academic Staff / Undergraduate degrees awarded
  • Academic Staff / Students - total
  • Papers - total / Million research income
  • Research reputation - global
  • Teaching reputation - global

Score

A number from 1-100 that represents the probability that any value randomly selected will fall below the value represented by that number. The score is calculated by cumulative probability.

A score places a value in context and allows for meaningful comparisons. For example, if the number of academic staff for an institution is 300, it is impossible to judge whether that is a large or small number in relation to other institutions. If the indicator (academic staff) receives a score of 50, then it is reasonable to conclude that 300 is average; that is, there is a 50% probability that the size of the academic staff of another institution randomly selected will be smaller than 300.

Self citation

A citation from a citing article to a source article with the same author name on both the source and citing articles.

Self-Citation

A self-citation is a reference to an article from the same journal. Self-citations can make up a significant portion of the citations a journal gives and receives each year. You can compare self-citing rates and self-cited rates to supplement your journal evaluation. 

Self cite

Same as self citation.

Sheer Size

A set of indicators that measure the overall size of the institution.

  • Academic staff
  • Undergraduate degrees awarded
  • Institutional income
  • Papers - total
  • Doctoral degrees awarded
  • Research staff
  • Research power
  • Students - total

Source article

An article in a journal. An InCites dataset is a collection of source articles and their citation data. Source articles may be viewed as Web of Science documents.

SRefs

Abbreviation for references to source articles.

Students – international / Students – total

The proportion of students that are of international origin. This is an indicator of the institution’s ability to attract students from a global environment. Care should be taken to recognise that regional and subject specific trends may influence this indicator. 

Students - total

This is the FTE number of students of all programs that lead to a degree, certificate, institutional credit or other qualification. It will include students of all years of study. Typically these will be undergraduate and postgraduate students who are studying for Higher Education programs such as Bachelors, Masters or Doctoral or other equivalent degrees or components of those programs.

Students – total

This is the FTE number of students of all programs that lead to a degree, certificate, institutional credit or other qualification. It will include students of all years of study.  Typically these will be undergraduate and postgraduate students who are studying for Higher Education programs such as Bachelors, Masters or Doctoral or other equivalent degrees or components of those programs.

Subject area

A field of research. Every journal is assigned to at least one subject area.

Subject area count

The number of total subject areas for the documents attributed to the funding agency in the dataset.

Subject Category

Each journal in JCR is assigned to at least one subject category, indicating a general area of science or the social sciences. Journals may be included in more than one subject category; therefore, when comparing journals across related categories, it is possible to see the same journal title in different categories. 

Teaching performance

A set of indicators reflecting the teaching performance of an institution.

  • Academic Staff / Students - total
  • Undergraduate degrees awarded / Undergraduate - new student intake
  • Doctoral degrees awarded / Academic Staff
  • Doctoral degrees awarded / Undergraduate degrees awarded
  • Doctoral degrees awarded / Doctoral - new student intake
  • Students - international / Students - total
  • Teaching reputation - global

Teaching reputation – global

Results of the Academic reputation survey for teaching.

Source: Academic Reputation Survey

Value: Average of values weighted according to country of respondent. Values can range from 0-100.

Score: Cumulative probability score of the value. Scores can range from 1-100.

Teaching reputation – international

Results of the Academic reputation survey for teaching limited to geographical regions other than the one in which the institution is based.

Source: Academic Reputation Survey

Value: Percentage of the responses that selected this institution

Score: Exponentially scaled Cumulative Probability score of the value. Scores can range from 1-100

Times Cited

Total number of citations from Web of Science (as of last InCites update).

In a Global Comparisons report, Times Cited limited to international collaboration counts is the number of citations received by publications written with international collaboration.

Times Cited Graphs Viewed

When the user is looking at the documents list and clicks on the Time Cited count, the Times Cited Graph is displayed. 

Times Cited without self citations

Times Cited without self citations is calculated by subtracting the number of self citations from the Times Cited number. If there are no self citations, then this number equals the number of total citations.

Total articles

Total number of articles in the dataset.

Total Cites

The total number of times that a journal has been cited by all journals included in the database in the JCR year.

Citations to journals listed in JCR are compiled annually from the JCR years combined database, regardless of which JCR edition lists the journal and regardless of what kind of article was cited or when the cited article was published. Each unique article-to-article link is counted as a citation.

Citations from a journal to an article previously published in the same journal are compiled in the total cites. However, some journals listed in JCR may be cited-only journals, in which case self-cites are not included.

Undergraduate degrees awarded

The number of degrees awarded for a taught program that is the first significant stage of the institution’s academic program. In many countries this is termed a “bachelor” degree.

Source: Institutional Data Collection

Value: Raw number

Score: Cumulative probability score of the value. Scores can range from 1-100.

Undergraduate degrees awarded / Undergraduate - new student intake

The graduation rate is an indicator of the probability that an incoming undergraduate student will graduate. Care should be taken to recognise that regional and subject specific trends may influence this indicator.

Undergraduate - new student intake

This is the FTE number of students entering the institution, or this level of education, for the first time during this year for a taught program that is the first significant stage of your institution’s academic program. This is often known as a Bachelor’s student.

Source: Institutional Data Collection

Value: Raw Number

Score: Cumulative Probability score of the value. Scores can range from 1-100

Undergraduate - new student intake - international / Undergraduate - new student intake

The proportion of undergraduate students that are of international origin. This is an indicator of the institution’s ability to attract students from a global environment. Care should be taken to recognise that regional and subject specific trends may influence this indicator.

Undergraduate – new student intake – international / Undergraduate – new student intake

The proportion of undergraduate students that are of international origin. This is an indicator of the institution’s ability to attract students from a global environment. Care should be taken to recognise that regional and subject specific trends may influence this indicator.

Unique authors

Number of distinct author names in a set of papers.

Unique identifier

Unique article identifier. Every Web of Science document has a unique identifier.

Unique organizations

Number of distinct organization names in a set of papers.

Web of Science document

The record of an article that may be viewed in Web of Science, a database of records of articles from more than 11,000 scholarly publications. Author Profile datasets may include records of documents not included in Web of Science.

The term source article is synonymous with Web of Science document.

• (small bullet)

In journal rankings, the small bullet indicates that complete source data were not available for a particular title before the JCR processing deadline (usually mid-February of the JCR year).